What is the treatment?

Human skin color is determined by pigments called melanin that are produced by specialized cells (melanocytes) of the skin. There are more than 150 genes that affect skin color either directly or indirectly. Sometimes, the melanin production goes awry; either too little or too much melanin is produced causing skin pigmentation disorders. These conditions make the skin appear lighter or darker than normal, or blotchy and discolored. Too much melanin causes hyperpigmentation and too little melanin results in hypopigmentation.

The root cause is generally attributed to internal factors such as hormones, endothelial cells, or biological conditions such as pregnancy. External factors such as ultraviolet radiation, burning, or contact with certain chemicals may sometimes cause pigmentation disorders. Stress and dietary imbalances, the precursors of many disorders, are also known to cause skin pigmentation disorders.

Since melanin is formed by a series of oxidative reactions that involve the amino acid tyrosine in the presence of the enzyme tyrosinase, inhibiting / regulating the action of tyrosinase can halt / alter melanin production. Most depigmenting agents thus target this enzyme.

There are some home remedies that can be used for treating skin pigmentation, but laser pigmentation removal is also a very popular remedy for treating skin pigmentation.

How is the treatment done?

There are a variety of treatments for skin pigmentation, a lot of which can be done at home. Making face packs is a very popular home remedy treatment option. The orange paste face mask is a very useful treatment option when it comes to sin pigmentation. Grate the skin of an orange and make a paste / gel with few teaspoons of milk. Leave it on for half an hour and then massage gently and wash it off with warm water. Exfoliate your face at least 3 to 4 times a week with this paste. Exfoliation encourages cell renewal and removes the dark blotches. Aloe vera is also very helpful when it comes to lightening dark spots on the skin. Aloe vera contains mucilaginous polysaccharides that can effectively lighten dark spots.

Sometimes, a skin infection, blisters, tan, sun burn, other burns or other trauma to your skin, may cause a decrease or increase of pigmentation in the affected area. These pigment alterations can be reversed and home remedies work very well for such conditions. Grind a few mint leaves and mix it with water to form a paste. To lessen dark pigmentation, apply the paste on the melanin spots and rinse it off after 15 minutes.

Apart from these home remedies, laser skin pigmentation removal treatment is a very popular option as well. Laser treatment is one of the most advanced treatments for removing unwanted pigmentation on the skin such as age spots, sun spots, and freckles. Chemical peels are an exceptional choice for the treatment of hyperpigmentation. These peels are specifically formulated to help even out the overall skin tone, treat hyperpigmentation, fine lines and wrinkles, while leaving the skin hydrated. Skin needling is highly effective for treating hyperpigmentation on dark skin colours. This multitasking treatment creates rejuvenating micro channels into the skin to promote a more balances and normalized cellular function. As melanocytes (pigment producing cells) are directly targeted, a repair and corrective process encourages an even skin tone creating a radiant appearance.

Are there any side effects?

If the patient follows home remedies for treating skin pigmentation, there are no side effects involved. However, if the patient opts for laser skin pigmentation treatment, then there are a number of side effects involved.

Lasers are effective for the treatment of hyperpigmentation, but are not free of side effects.. Common side effects include redness of the skin, swelling of the treated area, and moderate irritation similar to the feeling produced by a mild sunburn. In rare cases involving laser skin resurfacing, side effects such as burning, scarring, or a change in the pigmentation of the skin have occurred. Damage to your eyes can occur when lasers are used improperly during facial hyperpigmentation treatments; laser contact with your eyes can cause burns from laser exposure that can result in permanent blindness. Also, lasers that create extreme heat can cause your skin and tissue to heat up to damaging temperatures causing redness, blistering and burning.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

Laser skin pigmentation treatments have strict post-operation guidelines that is mandatory for patients to follow. Skin upon which the laser treatment has been done will often appear red and possibly slightly swollen for the first 24 hours, so it is advised to avoid applying makeup or fragranced skin products, to avoid excessive sun exposure, and to use a sunscreen of 30 SPF or higher if you must go outdoors. Avoid any trauma to the skin for up to 2-5 days, such as bathing with very hot water, strenuous exercise, or massage. Moreover, any additional cosmetic procedure, such as tweezing, waxing, bleaching or chemical peels, have to be avoided for at least up to 4 weeks after the treatment.

How long does it take to recover?

Laser skin resurfacing recovery and results vary depending upon the type of laser that is being used and the size of the area you wish to have treated. The most invasive treatments may produce enormous improvements, but may require an extended recovery time of multiple weeks. A gentler laser skin rejuvenation treatment may reduce the appearance of some imperfections and may require little or no downtime.